14.4 Grammar: Parts of Speech
Parts of speech are essential in grammar since they are the groups in which words are categorized. They allow you to identify a word in a sentence and provide the structure for the rules to follow.
1. Common Nouns – one particular class or group that is not capitalized.
Examples: dog, lock, pen
2. Noun as a subject:
The animal broke the lock.
3. Noun as a direct object :
Example: The dog broke the lock.
4. Noun as an indirect object:
Example: I gave Harold the lock.
Pronouns are used to replace a noun so that they do not become repetitive
Types of Pronouns:
1. Personal (subject):
Examples: I, you, he, she, it, we, you, they
2. Interrogative :
Examples: who, what, where, when, how, why, which, whom Relative – who, which, that, when, whose
Examples: anyone, someone, somebody, anybody, nobody, no one
Words used as a description for a noun or a pronoun. What kind, how many, or which one.
Examples: Tall, short, beautiful, strong, bold, ugly.
Types of Adjectives:
Examples: bigger than richer than, better than (John is bigger than Peter)
Examples: the biggest, the richest, the best (He is the richest man in the world)
Verbs can be used to describe or to show physical or mental action.
eat, jump, read, write, dance, fix
Types of Verbs:
1. Transitive: relates an action that has an object. (Gives transit)
Example: Helen baked a cake.
2. Intransitive: does not need an object.
Example: The baby cried.
3. Linking: links the subject and the complement.
Example: The older man seems tired.
4. Regular: form their past and past participle form with –d and –ed.
Examples: work-worked, dance-danced
5. Irregular: forms completely change.
Examples: go-went, sleep-slept
6. Auxiliary: helping verbs; when used with the main verb, it shows mood and tense.
Examples: will have, to be
7. Modal: used to indicate the possibility, a need, willingness, ability, or obligation.
Examples: can, could, may, should
8. Infinitive: verbs that are always preceded by a “to”.
Examples: to go, to dance, to speak
9. Bare infinitive: verbs that are not preceded by a “to”
Examples: go, dance, speak
Active and Passive Voices
Verbs can also be used in active or passive voices.
1. Active Voice: When the subject performs the action.
Mary had helped John.
The French built the Eiffel Tower.
Colombians grow coffee.
2. Passive Voice: When the subject becomes the receiver of the action.
The Eiffel Tower was built by the French.
John had been helped by Mary.
Rice is grown by Chinese.
1. Active Voice –
Who broke the lamp?
2. Passive Voice –
The lamp was broken before I came in.
Adverbs describe a verb, an adjective, or another adverb.
Examples: seriously, quickly, extremely.
When, where, why, how much, to what extent.
Many adverbs are formed by simply adding a –ly to an adjective or a noun.
He is very rich. It is extremely dangerous.
Types of Adverbs
1. Adverbs of Frequency
Examples: always, often, never
2. Adverbs of Time
Examples: before, yet, still
3. Adverbs of Place
Examples: there, here, everywhere, somewhere, anywhere Adverbs of Degree – almost, nearly, barely, hardly, just.
Prepositions show relationships between things, people, and actions by placing words in front of nouns, pronouns, or noun phrases to connect them to other words.
He was in the garden.
I spoke to Mr Hall on Friday about the hole in our roof.
They can also be used as an introduction to a phrase that completes the meaning of a verb. I told him about …
Types of Prepositions
1. Prepositions of Time:
Examples: in, on, about, off, at, on
2. Prepositions of Place:
Examples: in, at, beside, between, behind, for, off, on
Conjunctions are words that connect parts of speech.
Examples: but, because, and
I like tea, but I don ́t like coffee because it ́s too strong for me.
Interjections are words used to verbalize feelings or emotions.
HELP! OUCH! Yummy! Wow! Yuck Help! Call the police!